Science

Terpenes are cannabinoids

This article will set out two types of secondary metabolites that are biosynthesised by the plant Cannabis sativa L. and produce synergy with the effects of cannabinoids.

It is being observed that cannabinoids are not the only active substances in the Cannabis plant. Certain studies showed that there were differences between the effects produced by pure cannabinoids and the ones caused by the plant, although cannabinoids are administered in equal doses in both cases. These observations point to the existence of other active substances in the Cannabis plant, which have an intrinsic pharmacological action and/or can modify the pharmacological action of cannabinoids. Two groups of active substances have been identified presently; terpenes and flavonoids, both of which appear in sufficient concentrations to have pharmacological activity. From a scientific perspective, neither which kind of specific compounds are capable of producing synergy with cannabinoids, nor how they are formed, have been proven. Both terpenes and flavonoids are under the increasing attention of the scientific and medical community due to their proven pharmacological actions. In the following paragraphs, we will try to show the current state of the studies about the biological and synergistic activity between these active substances and the cannabinoids.

Terpenes

Terpenes are volatile organic compounds formed by the union of hydrocarbon of 5 carbon atoms, known as isoprene. The smallest and most volatile compounds are monoterpenes, which are biosynthesised by the union of two isoprene molecules. The biggest and least volatile are biosynthesised by the union of three or more isoprene molecules. The sesquiterpenes are next in the chain, which are formed by the union of three isoprene molecules. Terpenes are secondary metabolites, which provide the plant with its organoleptic characteristics (aroma and flavour) and that constitutes most of the essential oil produced by aromatic plants.

Terpenes and cannabinoids share their biosynthetic pathways and, in fact, cannabinoids are terpeno-fenolic compounds one of which is CBD. In the Cannabis plant, terpenes also share the biosynthesis and accumulation spaces. Thus, both types of compounds are biosynthesised in the glandular trichomes of leaves and flowers and are accumulated in large proportions in the exuded resin. In any case, it seems that certain non-capitular glandular trichomes, which are more abundant in leaves surface, are specialised in synthesizing terpenes. It has been shown that the ratio between monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in leaves and flowers is rather different. This is due to the dominance of sessile trichomes in leaves, which are more specialised in synthesizing terpenes, while capitate trichomes are more abundant in flowers and are specialised in the synthesis of monoterpenes and cannabinoids. The proportion of terpenes in the plant is normally less than 1%, potentially achieving up to 10% of the resin composition.

Functions of the Endocannabinoid System

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex cell-signaling system identified in the early 1990s by researchers exploring cannabinoids which are compounds found in the cannabis plant. Experts are still trying to fully understand the ECS. But so far, we know it plays role in regulating a range of functions and processes within the body. The ECS exists and is active in your body even if you don’t use cannabis.
How does it work?
The ECS involves three core components: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.
Endocannabinoids
Endocannabinoids, also called endogenous cannabinoids, are molecules made by your body. They’re similar to cannabinoids, but they’re produced by your body.
Experts have identified two key endocannabinoids so far:

  • anandamide (AEA)
  • 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG)

These two endocannabinoids help keep internal functions running smoothly. Your body produces them as needed, making it difficult to know what typical levels are for each.
Endocannabinoid receptors
These receptors are found throughout your body. Endocannabinoids bind to them in order to signal that the ECS needs to take action.
There are two main endocannabinoid receptors:

  • CB1 receptors, which are mostly found in the central nervous system
  • CB2 receptors, which are mostly found in your peripheral nervous system, especially immune cells

Endocannabinoids can bind to either receptor. The effects that result depend on where the receptor is located and which endocannabinoid it binds to. For example, endocannabinoids might target CB1 receptors in a spinal nerve to relieve pain. Others might bind to a CB2 receptor in your immune cells to signal that your body’s experiencing inflammation, a common sign of autoimmune disorders.
Enzymes
Enzymes are responsible for breaking down endocannabinoids once they’ve carried out their function.
There are two main enzymes responsible for this:

  • fatty acid amide hydrolase, which breaks down AEA
  • monoacylglycerol acid lipase, which typically breaks down 2-AG

**These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease.

 

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Frequently Asked Questions

Have a question? Here are some of the most common questions we receive. Don’t see the answer you were looking for? Feel free to ask your own questions HERE.

WHY SHOULD I USE AGORA CBD™?

Unlike chemically derived Terpenes, we do not alter the plant’s integrity. Agora CBD™ is extracted by a chemical-free process that invokes all of the plant’s natural synergy. We extract the natural fatty acids, waxes, minerals, and vitamins to create a potent phyto-rich, broad-spectrum, “as found in nature” supplement for your body.

We call this the “entourage effect,” which provides you the potential of Active Terpenes in their natural state. We are convinced this form of Terpene is the most efficacious and takes advantage of the whole plant interacting with your endocannabinoid system, just as nature intended.

Is CBD LEGAL?

Agora CBD™ is 100% legal anywhere in the World. This is because Agora CBD™ is derived from a natural plant. The FDA acknowledges that CBD is legal in the USA, enacted under the 2018 US Farm Bill.

HOW LONG Does CBD TAKE TO WORK?

This certainly varies from person to person as do the dosages. Most people take 10mg. – 40mg. per dosage and this could be a 10mg. gel cap or a dropper full of oil which comes in a 1-ounce bottle labeled 250 which is also 10mg. or 60mg. We have seen and heard that most people experience growing relief within as little as 20 minutes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Have a question? Here are some of the most common questions we receive. Don’t see the answer you were looking for? Feel free to ask your own questions HERE.

WHY SHOULD I USE AGORA CBD™?

Unlike chemically derived Terpenes, we do not alter the plant’s integrity. Agora CBD™ is extracted by a chemical-free process that invokes all of the plant’s natural synergy. We extract the natural fatty acids, waxes, minerals, and vitamins to create a potent phyto-rich, broad-spectrum, “as found in nature” supplement for your body.

We call this the “entourage effect,” which provides you the potential of Active Terpenes in their natural state. We are convinced this form of Terpene is the most efficacious and takes advantage of the whole plant interacting with your endocannabinoid system, just as nature intended.

Is CBD LEGAL?

Agora CBD™ is 100% legal anywhere in the World. This is because Agora CBD™ is derived from a natural plant. The FDA acknowledges that CBD is legal in the USA, enacted under the 2018 US Farm Bill.

HOW LONG DO Active Driven Terpenes TAKE TO WORK?

This certainly varies from person to person as do the dosages. Most people take 10mg. – 40mg. per dosage and this could be a 10mg. gel cap or a dropper full of oil which comes in a 1-ounce bottle labeled 250 which is also 10mg. or 60mg. We have seen and heard that most people experience growing relief within as little as 20 minutes.

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